Breeds also vary in butter fat content with Jersey cows the highest at 5-6 percent and Holstein cows the lowest at 3.35 to 3.75. Also, the fat content varies seasonally with the highest fat content in fall and winter. Also, it depends on when the cow is milked. If cows are milked twice a day, the later milking has the highest fat content. These variables show how differences in dairy cows can make a difference in the quality of the fresh milk—not only just the fact that it is fresh.
The Holstein-Friesian is the type of dairy cow most common in the UK, Europe and the US and has been bred to produce very high yields of milk at 22 litres per day in the UK. The average yield in the US is even higher at over 30 litres per day.
Is there a difference if cattle are grain or grass fed? On a trip to Hawaii, I had a personal experience with the differences. In the US most of the farmed cattle are grain fed, and this is the only kind of beef I had ever cooked or eaten. In Hawaii I was introduced to grass-finished, pasture-raised meat from animals that spend their entire life eating grass after being weaned. Pasture-raised beef is a product of animals that naturally eat grass that is "farmed" by ranchers. This ranching technique differs than the mainstream method of sending cattle to feedlots for fattening on grains until they make "market weight."
The beef came from cattle raised at The Parker Ranch on the Big Island. Granted the taste I experienced was of the cooked meat, not the milk from dairy cows raised in the same manner. But it was first time I realized there was such a difference in the taste based on how the cattle are raised and fed. I would surmise that milk has similarly different qualities in taste.
Hershey uses a variety of GMO sugars including high fructose and beet sugar, according to information on their website. They also use fresh milk which they say has been done for 120 years. “We work with dairy cooperatives, which supply fresh milk from farms that are local to our plant in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Each day, shiny milk tankers carrying fresh milk line up to deliver their goods—and in less than 72 hours that creamy milk is magically transformed into delicious chocolate,” they advertise.
There is a lot of discussion about the additives including preservatives extending the shelf life of the dairy bars that affect the viscosity of the melting chocolate in one’s mouth, but I would argue—totally unscientifically--that the taste is probably more affected by the dairy cows’ milk and possibly the sugars to a lesser degree. Texture, however, has been another divisive quality between the two dairy bars.
Milk is the second ingredient listed by Hershey and the dairies supplying the milk are most likely local grain fed dairy cattle, hence, the difference in the taste of US and UK Cadbury chocolate bar. The sugar content is higher, and because Americans have grown accustomed to a sweeter quality versus the more creamy texture of high milk content they prefer the US made. Whether the milk in the UK bars comes from grass or grain fed, it definitely has a prominent milk flavor. One chocolate reviewer suggested the UK dairy bar tasted more like chocolate cheesecake, she said in Slate.
“Candy reviewer Cybele May, doing the Lord’s work at Candy Blog, conducted a side-by-side taste test of the U.K. Dairy Milk and the American Dairy Milk in 2009 in Slate. She described the British version as very sweet and fudgy in texture, adding:
The bar smells sweet and rather cheesy, like cottage cheese or maybe yogurt (which would account for less sugar.) The cocoa notes are sweet, more like chocolate cake than cocoa. … the closest I can get is this smells like a rich chocolate cheesecake.”
In August, Hershey sued a New Jersey company called Let’s Buy British (LBB), which imports U.K. products, including the “real” Cadbury Dairy Milk bars, to the U.S., the Birmingham (England) Mail reported.
Under the settlement, LBB can no longer sell the British-made Cadbury chocolate, including favorite brands like the English Kit-Kats, Rolos and Maltesers. American-made Kit-Kats and Rolos will still be sold here, just not the British-made version.
There is no end to “them changes” in the Cadbury world because another favorite, Cadbury eggs, will still be around, but now they will taste slightly different because of the different recipe.
The UK Cadbury dairy bar takes its place among other British comfort foods like pot pies, cottage pies, fish and chips, and Yorkshire pudding. If Brits in the US can only get their chocolate dairy bar cravings satisfied by the UK brand, then needs must. Have it mailed to you from the continent from friends or family. Is that legal? Or is importation banned even if it comes from family or friends?
Dr. Richard Besser, ABC News chief health and medical editor, echoed the same concerns about measles parties.
“This is a really bad idea,” he said. “Although most children recover from chicken pox and measles without a problem, not all do. The vaccines are far safer than the diseases.”
Who should and should not get the MMR vaccination
MMR is a two-shot series of vaccines usually given during childhood. A child should receive the first shot when he is between 12-15 months, and the second when he's between 4-6 years of age.
If you're not sure if you have had the diseases or the vaccines (prior to 1971 it was given in three separate shots), you can get the MMR vaccine as an adult. Talk to your doctor about it if:
In a press conference on Monday with German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the president re-emphasized adherence to protocol saying if Germany were having elections, Merkel would not have been invited to the US at this time.
Foxman, however, did not hedge on the organization’s support of Israel and the potential threats from Iran regarding nuclear arms. Falling short of negating a visit completely, Foxman suggested Netanyahu visit after Israel’s March 17 elections. Another alternative would be to address the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) conference on March 1 in Washington D.C.
“I don’t want to be coy,” Obama said. “The prime minister and I have a very real difference around Iran, around sanctions.”
Obama also defended his recent decision not to meet with Netanyahu during the prime minister’s upcoming Washington visit, which is scheduled to take place shortly before the Israeli elections.
Obama said on Monday there was no reason to extend nuclear talks with Iran once again, stressing the question now was whether Tehran actually wanted an agreement, according to a report in the Times of Israel.
“I don’t see a further extension being useful if they have not agreed to the basic formulation and the bottom line that the world requires to have confidence that they’re not pursuing a nuclear weapon,” Obama said. “The issues have been clarified, gaps have been narrowed, the Iranians have abided by the agreement,” they said.
Clearly the popularity and support for Netanyahu speaking before a joint session of the US Congress is waning in Israel and the US. Whether the prime minister will back down from the visit is yet to be seen. In addition to Obama saying he will not meet with the Israel leader should he decide to come here, Congressional Democrats are now floating the idea that they will boycott Netanyahu if he appears before Congress. Would it be worth a visit to the US to confabulate with a room full of Republicans only?
Opposition to the lifesaving procedure
The Center for Genetics and Society located in California is an organization critical of genetic innovations. They support benign and beneficent medical applications of these technologies, and oppose those applications that in their words “objectify human life and threaten to divide human society.”
They oppose the new procedure saying it passes the line and could open the door to more and different kinds of inheritable genetic modifications in the future leading to genetic “redesign” of future generations.
The Church of England and the Catholic Church in the UK and Wales have both suggested more research and wider debate were indicated. Rev. Dr. Brendan McCarthy, described the step as representing an ethical watershed in a CNN report.
"We accept in certain circumstances that embryo research is permissible as long as it is undertaken to alleviate human suffering and embryos are treated with respect. We have great sympathy for families affected by mitochondrial disease and are not opposed in principle to mitochondrial replacement," he said.
"Our view, however, remains that we believe that the law should not be changed until there has been further scientific study and informed debate into the ethics, safety and efficacy of mitochondrial replacement therapy."
Bishop John Sherrington, in a statement posted online by the Catholic Church in England and Wales, urged lawmakers not to rush into taking such a serious step.
"It seems extraordinary that a license should be sought for a radical new technique affecting future generations without first conducting a clinical trial," he said. "There are also serious ethical objections to this procedure which involves the destruction of human embryos as part of the process."
A Wellcome Trust fact sheet states that "nuclear DNA is not altered, and so mitochondrial donation will not affect the child's appearance, personality or any other features that make a person unique -- it will simply allow the mitochondria to function normally and the child to be free of mitochondrial DNA disease.
"The healthy mitochondria will also be passed on to any children of women born using the technique."
Despite the controversy, the House of Lords is expected to approve the treatment next month, when they vote to support the change - which it is expected to - the UK will be the first country in the world to permit embryos to be made with the genetic material of three people: a man and two women, according to Medical News Today.
Members of Parliament who supported the change believe the benefits outweigh the risks. During the debate in the House of Commons, ministers said the new IVF procedure was a "light at the end of a dark tunnel" for families.
Public Health Minister Jane Ellison told MPs: "This is a bold step for parliament to take, but it is a considered and informed step,” they said.
Prime Minister David Cameron’s son Ivan died at age six in 2009 from cerebral palsy and epilepsy, and he believes there is no danger of the procedure leading to "designer babies." He said in an interview on LBC Radio that he saw mitochondrial DNA transfer as more like a kidney donation or a lung donation than a fundamental change. "It is not like playing God," he said.
United States Response
Dr. Samuel Pang, the medical director of the Reproductive Science Center (RSC) of New England, said a year ago that “99.99 percent of genetic material comes from nuclear DNA,” which would all be from the mother. “Maybe a tiny fraction of one percent” comes from the mitochondrial DNA, so the outside donor’s genetic impact would be extremely minimal.
In short, replacing the mitochondrial DNA would not have a major effect on a human, other than to prevent the development of crippling mitochondrial disorders. “We’re not choosing genes for eye color or hair color or intelligence,” said Pang. “We’re simply transfusing mitochondria into an egg to prevent that egg from into developing into a child with mitochondrial disease.”
Fertility procedures have a small genetic impact on the donor mitochondrial DNA and fears that it’s the beginning of “designer” babies is unfounded. The scientific field of in-vitro fertilization unfortunately causes some in the public sector to overreact.
Like stem cell research, there are a lot of myths about the new IVF treatment, and the best way to counter misconceptions is to take the time to learn about the benefits and lifesaving qualities, rather than focus on what some view as the detractions apart from the science.
is retired and lives in Clearlake, California.