Although the match was a tight one Chile probably deserved to win but the nature of the game is not that simple. On the day it was Brazil who made it through keeping the host nation's hopes of world cup success alive.
BBC Sport's News facts:
"Five equals the most missed penalties in a World Cup shootout. The last eight shootouts have now all been won by team going first. Last team to win when going second were Spain v Ireland in 2002."
So the advice has to be if you are in a world cup penalty shoot-out go first if at all possible.
Brazil will now face Colombia or Uruguay in the quarter-finals. That match will be played later today at the Estádio Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro. Uruguay will not have star-player Luis Suarez who has been sent home to Montevideo following the alleged biting incident.
Update: Uruguay are out of the cup and Colombia are through to the next round following a 2-0 win.
David Luiz (18') for Brazil
Sánchez (32') for Chile
More at BBC Sport's news